HOW CAN INNOVATIONS IN URBAN AGRICULTURE STRENGTHEN AFRICA’S FOOD SYSTEMS AND DELIVER BENEFITS FOR NATURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT?
By Alice Ruhweza, Regional Director for Africa, WWF; Former CoSAI Commissioner
From farm to table, almost every transaction in the food value chain has wide ranging impacts on nature and the environment. Food systems across Africa are leading to invasion and degradation of forests, savannahs and wetlands, as well as polluting water, “mining” soils and producing greenhouse gases (GHGs) in ever-increasing amounts. Total arable land in use in Sub-Saharan Africa has increased from 133 million hectares four decades ago to 240 million hectares in 2020. By 2050, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that this could increase to 291 million hectares. Read the full blog here.
Sustainable agricultural intensification to feed the cities and grow Africa
By David Simon, CoSAI Commissioner
In Africa, as elsewhere, people are increasingly living in urban areas –up to 1 billion people could live in African towns and cities by 2040. Just 20 years ago, Africa’s population was around 75% rural. This means that considering future food security scenarios must take a food systems approach that integrates, rather than separates, rural and urban populations. Consider that of the 9% of the world's population currently classed as undernourished, almost 20% are in Africa. These numbers do not yet include the global estimates of 100 million people expected to be driven into extreme poverty by COVID-19 in the coming months. Read the full blog here.
An urgent task: we must innovate to sustainably intensify the Global South’s agricultural systems
By Ruben Echeverría, CoSAI Chair
These challenging times are forcing us to rethink the prominent paradigms that govern our lives, from how we work to how we shop in this “new normal”. As other sectors scramble to keep people healthy and keep children in school, the food sector faces a daunting challenge: ensuring that the 7.8 billion people in the world have access to food. Read the full blog here.
What We're Reading
Going local? Two recent publications come to radically different conclusions about local food production for local needs. The first one (Bello 2020) is a passionate plea for food sovereignty – moving away from global food supply chains to local, small-scale production in the wake of the Covid-19 crisis. The second paper (Kinnunen et al. 2020) models the numbers and concludes that “local food crop production can fulfil demand for less than one third of the global population… Although yield gap closure and food loss reductions could favour more local food systems, particularly in Africa and Asia, global supply chains would still be needed to ensure an adequate and stable food supply”.
What are the global priorities for agriculture R&D? A new paper by Cassman and Grassini (2020) argues that the looming global food shortage and the long timeline needed for most R&D means that global research priorities must be set "with a ruthless focus on the dual objectives of achieving large increases in yields on existing farmland coupled with substantial improvement in environmental performance". They discuss different scenarios, assumptions and objectives and state that "As we see it, the most likely scenario is that the global food system in 2050 becomes increasingly globalized and trade-dependent due to the demographic weight of urbanization, which is expected to rise from 55% of global population today to nearly 70% by 2050".