Groundwater critical for sustainable development - References


  1. Van der Gun, J. 2012. Groundwater and Global Change: Trends, Opportunities and Challenges. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization US Geological Survey, Water Science School Where is earth’s water? US Geological Survey, Water Science School
  2. Jorgensen, L. F., Stockmarr, J. 2009. Groundwater Monitoring in Denmark: Characteristics, Perspectives and Comparison to Other Countries.  Hydrogeology Journal, 17, 827–842. doi: 10.1007/s10040-008-0398-7
  3. Wada Y, Bierkens MF. 2014. Sustainability of Global Water Use: Past Reconstruction and Future Projections. Environmental Research Letters. 9(10):104003.
  4. Tegel W et al. 2012. Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World’s Oldest Wood Architecture. PLoS ONE 7(12): e51374; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.
  10. A Brief History of UK Groundwater Use. British Geological Survey
  11. Siebert S., Burke J., Faures J. M., Frenken K., Hoogeveen J., Döll P., and Portmann F. T. 2010. Groundwater Use for Irrigation – a Global Inventory. Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences, 14, 1863-1880.
  13. Dillon P, Stuyfzand P, Grischek T, Lluria M, Pyne RDG, Jain RC, Bear J, Schwarz J, Wang W, Fernandez E, Stefan C, Pettenati M, van der Gun J, Sprenger C, Massmann G, Scanlon BR, Xanke J, Jokela P, Zheng Y, Rossetto R, Shamrukh M, Pavelic P, Murray E, Ross A, Bonilla Valverde JP, Palma Nava A, Ansems N, Posavec K, Ha K, Martin R, Sapiano M. 2019. Sixty Years of Global Progress in Managed Aquifer Recharge. Hydrogeol J, 27: 1.
  14. Howard K. & Gelo K.K. 2002. Intensive Groundwater Use in Urban Areas: the Aase of Megacities. Intensive Use of Groundwater: Challenges and Opportunities. CRC Press, p. 484.
  15. Lele U. 2013. Water and Food Security – Experiences in India and China. Global Water Partnership. ISSN: 2001-4023, ISBN: 978-91-85321-95-7.
  16. Shah T., Burke J.J, and Villholth K.G. 2007. Groundwater: a Global Assessment of Scale and Significance. Chapter 10, 395-423. In: D. Molden (Ed.): Water for Food, Water for Life. Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture Synthesis Report. Earthscan. ISBN: 978-1-84407-396-2.
  19. Disi A.M., Damhoureyeh S.A., Al-Khader I.A. and Al-Jbour S. 2004. The Azraq Oasis: Biodiversity, Threats and Conservation. Annals of Arid Zone. 42(3&4): 1-20.
  20. Coughanowr C. 1994. GroundWater. Water-related Issues of the Humid Tropics and Other Warm Humid Regions. IHP, Humid Tropics Programme Series 8. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris.
  21. Konikow L.F. 2013. Groundwater depletion in the United States (1900−2008): U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013−5079, 63 p.
  22. Taylor R. 2014. When the wells run dry, Nature, 516 , pp. 179-180, 10.1038/516179a
  23. Tamil Nadu fights sea intrusion to protect farm lands. By C.S. Kotteswaran. 2017. Deccan Chronicle.
  24. Inequality Fuels Water Quarrels in India’s Second Most Populous State. By Kayla Ritter., 2018 How unchecked pumping is sucking aquifers dry in India. By Ian James., 2015.
  25. MacDonald A.M.; Bell R.A.; Kebede S.; Azagegn T.; Tadesse Y.; Pichon F.; Young M.; McKenzie A.; Lapworth D.J.; Black E.; Calow R.C. 2019. Groundwater and resilience to drought in the Ethiopian Highlands. Environmental Research Letters.
  26. Dry springs and dead orchards. By Ian James. 2015.
  27. Cape Town’s ‘Day Zero’ Water Crisis, One Year Later. By Christian Alexander. 2019.
  28. Cape's groundwater will gain in importance from Day Zero. By Andrea Weiss. WWF SA., 2018.
  29. The fifth Water Framework Directive Implementation Report – assessment of the second River Basin Management Plans and the first Floods Directive Implementation Report – assessment of the first Flood Risk Management Plans (2019). Water Information System for Europe.
  30. Fries E., Mahjoub O., B. Mahjoub B., Berrehoue A., Lions J., Bahadir M. 2016. Occurrence of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC) in Conventional and Non-Conventional Water Resources in Tunisia. Fresenius Envir. Bull. 25, 3317-3339
  31. United Nations World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water Under Uncertainty and Risk.
  33. India Groundwater: a Valuable but Diminishing Resource. 2012, World Bank.
  34. Jakarta, the fastest-sinking city in the world. By Mayuri Mei Lin & Rafki Hidayat. BBC Indonesian, 2018.
  35. Scanlon B.R., Faunt C.C.,  Longuevergne L., Reedy R.C., Alley W.M., McGuire V.L., and McMahon P.B.2012. Groundwater Depletion and Sustainability of Irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley. PNAS 109 (24) 9320-9325;
  36. Zaveri E., Grogan D.S., Fisher-Vanden K., Frolking S., Lammers R.B., Wrenn D.H., Prusevich A. and Nicholas R.E. 2016. Invisible Water, Visible Impact: Groundwater Use and Indian Agriculture Under Climate Change. Environmental Research Letters, 11(8):1–13.
  37. Cuthbert M.O., Taylor R.G., Favreau G., Todd M.C., Shamsudduha M., Villholth K.G., MacDonald A.M., Scanlon B.R., Kotchoni D.O.V,  Vouillamoz J.M., Lawson F.M.A, Adjomayi P.A., Kashaigili J, Seddon D, Sorensen J.P.R., Ebrahim G.Y., Owor M., Nyenje P.M., Nazoumou Y, Goni, I., Ousmane B.I., Sibanda T., Ascott M.J., Macdonald D.M.J., Agyekum W., Koussoubé Y., Wanke H., Kim H., Wada Y., Lo M.H., Oki T. & Kukuric N. 2019. Observed Controls on Resilience of Groundwater to Climate Variability in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  42. Jadeja Y., Maheshwari B., Packham R., Hakimuddin B., Purohit R., Thaker B., Dillon P., Oza S., Dave S., Soni P., Dashora Y., Dashora R., Shah T., Gorsiya J., Katara P., Ward J., Kookana R., Singh PK., Chinnasamy P., Goradiya V., Prathapar S., Varua M. and Chew M. 2018. Managing Aquifer Recharge and Sustaining Groundwater Use: Developing a Capacity Building Orogram for Creating Local Groundwater Champions. Sustainable Water Resources Management 4(2) 317-329.
  44. Guppy L., Uyttendaele P., Villholth K.G., and Smakhtin V. 2018. Groundwater and Sustainable Development Goals: Analysis of Interlinkages. UNU-INWEH Report Series, Issue 04. United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health, Hamilton, Canada. 23 pp. ISBN: 978-92-808-6092-4.


  1. 7,111-year-old well unearthed near the historic town Eythra in Saxony, Germany. Source: Tegel W et al. 2012. Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World’s Oldest Wood Architecture. PLoS ONE 7(12): e51374; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.
  2. A Chinese ceramic model of a well with a water pulley system, excavated from a tomb of the Han Dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD). Source:
  3. Cross-section of a Qanat. Source:
  4. A Persian Sakia wheel, ca. 1905. Source: University of Houston Libraries
  5. Donkey at work at Carisbrooke castle during the 50's. Source:
  6. Construction of the very first piped water supply system in The Netherlands. Source:
  7. Memorial to the victims of the 1832 cholera epidemic at the Howard Park cholera pit, Kilmarnock, UK. Source:
  8. Pumping station for Bilston Waterworks to pump water supply to Bilston, Wombourne, UK. The building is dated 1895. Pumping depth was approx. 50 m. Source:
  9. Early center pivot irrigation system in the Midwest, USA. The pipes are 3 m above ground, and the towers are more than 6.5 m tall. Source:
  10. IAH logo. Source:
  11. The Santa Ana River in Anaheim, California during high flows in the 1940s. Note that Orange County Water District was already then actively managing the riverbed to enhance groundwater recharge of river runoff. Source:
  12. Subsidence in Tokyo, Japan, 1970. Source:
  13. Indian farmer from Andhra Pradesh benefitting from the Green Revolution, including news rice strains and groundwater access (1967). Source:
  14. Smallholder farmers irrigating in china. Source: IWMI
  15. A view of Busan, the Republic of Korea’s second largest city after Seoul. Source: UN Photo/Kibae Park, 2016
  16. Construction of the Great Man-made River in Libya. Source:
  17. The Azraq Wetland Reserve prior to restoration (1993). Source:
  18. Pumping water to different parts of the Azraq Wetland reserve has helped attract a large variety of bird species, especially migrants (Photo courtesy of Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature (RSCN)). Source:
  19. Forward-thinking farmers in California are abandoning almonds and turning to a nut native to the hot, dry Middle East: the pistachio. Source:
  20. Seven largest groundwater consuming countries in the world. Source: Taylor, R. (2014) When wells run dry. Nature, 516, 179-180.
  21. Freshwater about half a foot below the sill level of bed dam in Cuddalore District,Tamil Nadu, India shows the arrest of seawater from the coast. Source:
  22. Adinath Suryawanshi stands by his open well, which once provided water for his family on their 7.5-acre farm in Maharashtra state, India. The well, which was blasted open with dynamite years ago, has gone dry. Source:
  23. Water pump in the highlands of Ethiopia. Source:
  24. Mbarek Belkadi stands next to the stump of an orange tree on his family's farm in Sebt El Guerdane, Morocco. He said earning a living has been difficult the past several years since their well went dry and the family uprooted their trees. Source:
  25. People queuing for water in Cape Town (2018). Source:
  26. Landfill in Lagos,Nigeria. Source:
  27. Managing Water Under Uncertainty and Risk cover. Source:
  28. Managed aquifer recharge scheme in San Luis Río Colorado, north-western Mexico. Source: : Jorge Ramírez-Hernández, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California with aerial support from LightHawk.
  29. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is increasingly dependent on groundwater. Source:
  30. The village well in Paldev Ka Purwa village in Banda district of Uttar Pradesh dried up three years ago, bringing cultivation to a virtual halt. Source:
  31. Jakarta is implementing infrastructure in the harbour to combat seawater intrusion. Source:
  32. Corn crop affected by drought or depleting groundwater. Source:
  33. Indian smallholder farmer praying for rain. Source: