This work represents Bioversity's specific contribution to the Ecosystem Service and Resilience Core Theme and includes the continued leadership of the Ecosystem Service and Resilience Working Group. In 2014 the Core Theme published the ESR framework, and initiated several key capacity socialization activities with the CRP flagships including synthetic reviews of the literature, workshops, engagement with IPBES and the Sustainable Development Goals. In 2015 this activity will focus on five main areas of research (1) socializing and supporting the ecosystem services and resilience core theme in the WLE flagships and focal regions, (2) continued engagement with IPBES with a specific focus on WLE contributions to focal region assessments, (3) SNAP working group on making ecosystem services count in the SDG’s and African investment decisions, and (4) adaption of ecosystem service and resilience targeting models (InVEST/Rios) for use in WLE specific contexts, and (5) identification and testing of livelihood based metrics for evaluating and monitoring the outcomes of ecosystem based development interventions. This activity includes several supporting projects that contribute to the research areas highlighted above. These include: the SNAP working group, co-funded by PIM, on “Making Ecosystem Services Count”; the FAO led TEEB for Food and Agriculture: Rice study for ecosystem services of rice based cultivation systems; the Bioversity led innovation fund project in the Volta on improving the targeting of agroecological interventions; and the Bioversity led Bridging Agriculture and Conservation Initiative. We include general support to the CRP management as mandated through core theme leadership including but not limited to core theme coordination, and communication. This includes CRP representation in global fora such as the CGIAR Development Dialogues, the Stockholm Resilience Center’s EAT initiative, the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, and Ecosystem Service Partnership, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Bioversity and Ecosystem Services.