The key objective is to develop and implement business models for reuse of fecal sludge and undertake feasibility studies of those business models. Like other RRR projects this one is also about closing water and nutrient loops which support regulatory ESS, while preventing environmental pollution. The project targets our partner WSP and the entire sanitation value chain with the aim of fecal sludge reuse business models improving the cost recovery aspect of sanitation and increased private sector participation in a sector dominated by public actors. The business models are designed to bring back the lost resources such as nutrients for soil amelioration and energy for household and businesses. The project assists in reduction of surface and ground water pollution caused by indiscriminate dumping of fecal sludge and will develop safety guidelines to ensure human health and environment safety through improved fecal sludge management. This project is implemented in Sri Lanka and India and it also includes a USAID/PEER funded PhD study on P recovery from Fecal Sludge and urine reuse in India. The project is analyzing the feasibility of RRR business models and setting up demonstration trials for fecal sludge pelletizing. The project is also testing pellets for different soils and crops.