To close the nutrient cycle which is an important regulatory ESS, the project will enhance safe use of excreta in agriculture which will also help to generate revenues for the sanitation value chain. To achieve that, this project will kick-start several production plants in Ghana. One plant (under WaFo project) capable of producing up to 1,000 tons per year of fecal based fertilizer material, Fortifer, will be constructed in Tema. The Wafo project will establish appropriate partnerships and a detailed business plan for the production through a PPP with the Municipality of Tema and a leading local sanitation enterprise. It will ensure the necessary product certification from the Ghanaian government and come up with a marketing plan for Fortifer and a replication plan in two other Ghanaian cities. This project will demonstrate that Fortifier technology improves the sustainability of the sanitation value chain by generating a revenue stream. From the program perspective, the actual implementation of a closed-loop process allows significant learning elements which will help similar projects and the formulation of investment plans. Under CapVal project, three additional plants will be constructed for FS, municipal solid waste (MSW) and wastewater reuse (200 tons per year of compost, 1,000 tons per year of fuel briquettes, and waste water use in aquaculture in in three other Ghanaian cities).