The rationale behind this project is that adaptive capacity can be increased through recognition and inclusion of ecosystem services provided by natural infrastructure in investment strategies for climate change adaptation and through optimisation with built infrastructure planning and development. Major new climate financing for adaptation is coming on stream with water infrastructure as a priority. Ecosystem services need to be linked more directly and clearly into water infrastructure development, for climate change adaptation and integration into water, food and energy security. If river basins themselves are treated as natural infrastructure, based on the ecosystems services they provide, then infrastructure planning and investment can consider alternate ‘portfolios’ of built and natural infrastructure. This project will develop, test and demonstrate approaches to using portfolios of built and natural water infrastructure development to achieve more optimal outcomes for the multiple goals of poverty reduction, water-food-energy security, biodiversity conservation and climate resilience. The research will be focused in the Volta and Tana river basins. This project aligns with WLE flagship 5: Managing resource variability and competing use (MRV) and contributes to activity cluster 5.1 Managing water resources variability and rethinking storage.