Report series

On-farm treatment options for wastewater, greywater and fecal sludge with special reference to West Africa

Resource recovery and reuse series 1

Where conventional wastewater treatment is lacking, and water in streams and rivers used for crop irrigation is heavily polluted, alternative or additional options for health risk reduction are needed. On-farm treatment, although it can hardly replace conventional treatment, can contribute to risk reduction, especially if combined with other measures such as safe irrigation practices and post-harvest crop washing. Based on experiences in West Africa, this report presents an overview of low-cost wastewater treatment technologies for pathogen removal, which can be adapted for use in urban and peri-urban areas in low-income countries. Read on.

Technological options for safe resource recovery from fecal sludge

Resource recovery and reuse series 2

Fecal sludge contains important quantities of organic matter and nutrients that are valuable for agricultural production. This document describes technical solutions for the recycling of fecal sludge to benefit agriculture; this is particularly important for developing countries where there is an urgent need to enhance, at low cost, soil fertility for agricultural purposes. Read on.

Co-composting of solid waste and fecal sludge for nutrient and organic matter recovery

Resource recovery and reuse series 3

Proper management of waste and efficient resource recovery are relevant aspects of environmental management systems that could support a circular economy and assist in addressing global challenges. Composting, as a low cost technology, remains a valid and relevant option to enhance waste management in developing countries where the bulk of collected solid waste is organic in nature but recycling rates are still low. This report provides practical guidance and the latest knowledge related to co-composting of organic waste from municipal waste streams, including human excreta, in order to support planners, researchers, development experts and practitioners in their work. Read on.

Global experiences in water reuse

Resource recovery and reuse series 4

This report reviews a range of drivers, barriers, benefits, and incentives for water reuse and wastewater use outside of the United States; outlines the state of, and geographic variation in, water reuse and wastewater use; and reviews paths for expanding the  scale of safe and sustainable water reuse and wastewater use in different contexts as also discussed in the frame of  the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Read on.

Potential business opportunities from saline water and salt-affected land resources

Resource recovery and reuse series 5

Saline water and salt-affected lands suffer from low agricultural productivity and significant environmental constraints. This report presents four case studies  on  saline  water recycling  and  reuse from developed and developing countries. These examples suggest that strategic investments  in  salt-affected  irrigated  zones  can  make  a  significant contribution   to   poverty   reduction,   generate   additional economic benefits and ensure equitable social development for  smallholders  and  marginalized  groups,  among  other advantages. Read on.

Business models for fecal sludge management

On-site sanitation systems, such as septic tanks and pit latrines, are the predominant feature across rural and urban areas in most developing countries. However, their management is one of the most neglected sanitation challenges. While under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the set-up of toilet systems received the most attention, business models for the sanitation service chain, including pit desludging, sludge transport, treatment and disposal or resource recovery, are only emerging. Based on the analysis of over 40 fecal sludge management (FSM) cases from Asia, Africa and Latin America, this report shows opportunities as well as bottlenecks that FSM is facing from an institutional and entrepreneurial perspective. Read on.

A Review on Production, Marketing and Use of Fuel Briquettes

In recent years, briquetting has aroused a great deal of interest because of the opportunity to utilize agricultural residues and the organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) more efciently with a potential reduction in environmental pollution levels. Where modern heating and cooking fuels for domestic, institutional, commercial and industrial use are not readily available, briquettes made from biomass residues could contribute to the sustainable supply of energy. This study reviews the briquette making process, looking at the entire value chain starting from the type and characteristics of feedstock used for briquette making to the potential market for briquettes in developing countries. It also analyzes the role that gender plays in briquette production. Read more

Recycling and reuse of treated wastewater in urban India

Resource recovery and reuse series 8

Urban India faces significant challenges in terms of availability of adequate water supply and sanitation infrastructure. This  “note”  on  wastewater  recycling  and  reuse  in  urban  India  identifies  the  economic  benefits of wastewater recycling from the  perspective  of  public  spending.  It also provides supporting information on the evolution and current practices of wastewater recycling  internationally  and  the  international  and  national  regulatory  and  policy  frameworks  that  guide wastewater  recycling. Read on

Energy Recovery from Domestic and Agro-waste Streams in Uganda: A Socioeconomic Assessment

Africa is in the midst of an urbanization boom which has created a range of opportunities and challenges. How to sustainably deal with domestic and agro-waste is one of the most pressing. As most cities in Africa grapple with the challenge of energy security, recovering energy from waste offers benefits of improving waste management whilst providing reliable energy to an emerging urbanizing Africa. This report presents a socioeconomic assessment of three energy business models, based on feasibility studies carried out in Kampala, Uganda: Dry fuel manufacturing model, Energy Service Company model and Onsite energy generation model. Read on

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

Resource recovery and reuse series 10

In many developing countries, the sanitation sector is highly subsidized by public sector agencies, which has resulted in inadequate and inequitable provision of waste management services. A paradigm shift towards cost recovery is increasingly being supported by many donors, who are pushing for private sector participation and waste-to-wealth programs. This development advocates for a shift from waste ‘treatment for disposal’ to ‘treatment for reuse’. This guideline presents a detailed methodological framework that can be used for the feasibility assessment of RRR business models in the context of developing countries. Its purpose is to support public and private sectors as well as investors in determining the potential viability of RRR in a particular location and context. Read on