- Provisioning services refer mainly to goods that can be directly consumed, and include food, water, raw materials, such as fiber and biofuel, and genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources.
- Regulating services comprise regulation of climate, air quality, nutrient cycles and water flows; moderation of extreme weather events; treatment of waste – including water purification; prevention of erosion; maintenance of soil fertility; pollination; and biological controls, such as pests and diseases.
- Habitat services are those that maintain the life cycles of species or maintain genetic diversity, through quality and quantity of suitable habitat, e.g., natural vegetation that enables the natural selection of species to maintain a diverse gene pool or which serve as a source of pollinator and pest control agents. These types of habitats benefit people primarily by maintaining stocks and flows of biodiversity, which underpin and ensure the resilience of many of the provisioning, regulating and cultural services provided by ecosystems.
- Cultural services refer to the aesthetic, recreational and tourism, inspirational, spiritual, cognitive development and mental health services provided by ecosystems.